Author: fltzp4vhdb3wxju

会社のロゴにも使用しているアリクイ

モデルはミナミコアリクイのミクちゃん
まだまだ増やしたい動物種のひとつ。

■和名:ミナミコアリクイ
■学名:Tamandua tetradactyla
■英名:Southern Tamandua
Collared Anteater、Lesser Anteater
■分布:ベネズエラ、ブラジル、アルゼンチン

【 ミナミコアリクイ亜種 】
●Tamandua tetradactyla nigra
●Tamandua tetradactyla quichua
●Tamandua tetradactyla straminea

■和名:キタコアリクイ
■学名:Tamandua mexicana
■英名:Northern Tamandua
■分布:南米/南アメリカ北部
■体長:60~90cm程度

■和名:ヒメアリクイ(姫蟻食)
■学名:Cyclopes didactylus
■英名:Pygmy Anteater、Silky anteater
■分布:エクアドル、ガイアナ、コスタリカ
コロンビア、スリナム、トリニダード・トバゴ
ニカラグア、パナマ、パラグアイ、ブラジル
フランス(仏領ギアナ)ベネズエラ、ベリーズ
ペルー北部、ボリビア、ホンジュラス
メキシコ南部
■体長:最大25cm程度(最小種)

【 ヒメコアリクイ亜種 】
●Cyclopes didactylus didactylus
●Cyclopes didactylus catellus
●Cyclopes didactylus dorsalis
●Cyclopes didactylus eva
●Cyclopes didactylus ida
●Cyclopes didactylus melini
●Cyclopes didactylus mexicanus

■和名:オオアリクイ(大蟻食)
■学名:Myrmecophaga tridactyla
■英名:Giant Anteater
■分布:アルゼンチン、エクアドル、ガイアナ
コロンビア、スリナム、ニカラグア、パナマ
パラグアイ、ペルー、ブラジル、仏領ギアナ
ベネズエラ、ボリビア、ホンジュラス
アルゼンチン(エントレ・リオス州、コルドバ州)
ウルグアイ、エルサルバドル、グアテマラ
ブラジル(エスピリトサント州
サンタカタリーナ州、リオグランデ・ド・スル州
リオデジャネイロ州)
■体長:最大120cm程度(最大種)

■和名:フクロアリクイ(袋蟻食)
■学名:Myrmecobius fasciatus
■英名:Numbat/Banded anteater
■分布:西オーストラリア州南西部固有種

フクロアリクイ科フクロアリクイ属の有袋類
通常のアリクイはアリクイ目に分類されますが
フクロアリクイはフクロネコ目に分類される為
アリクイと名前が付いていますが別種の動物
別名:ナンバット

【 フクロアリクイ亜種 】
Myrmecobius fasciatus rufus (絶滅種)

※時間が無い時は学術記載などに逃げるが勝ち!!

 

追記…タイトルのコアリクイVSコツメカワウソは

この2種への個人的な思い入れが

心情的に戦っているだけの表現です。

 

 

 

 

人為的なミスで動物を死なしてしまったり
ケガをさせてしまったりしている奴を見ると
人間相手と同じように保護責任者遺棄致死罪や
重過失致死傷罪で逮捕されてくんないかなと
切に願う瞬間が最近はかなりの頻度である。
動物の生き死にに関わるような事柄に対して
“忘れてましたすいません”で片付けられる度に
犯人の極刑を希望する被害者の身内の心境だが
勿論この手の法は動物相手だと適用されない。

そんな 人と動物の扱われ方の違いですが
法律上、人間は「人」ですが動物は「物」です。

では、その人間を診る「医師」と動物を診る
「獣医師」の違いは何でしょう?

人間の医師が動物に対して治療を行うことは
法律違反になるのかならないのか?

ちなみに「医師」の管轄は厚生労働省
「獣医師」は農林水産省が管轄になります。

医師は医師法に基づいて「人」に対して診療を
行う資格ですから「動物」は管轄外になるので
医師が動物を診療するのは当然違法となります。

獣医師も人間の医師同様に獣医師法に基づいて
「動物」に対して診療を行う資格ですので
獣医師が人を診療するのも当然違法となります。

【 獣医師法 】
http://www.houko.com/00/01/S24/186.HTM
【 獣医療法 】
※動物病院の開業などついて定められた法
http://www.houko.com/00/01/H04/046.HTM

「医師」だから動物を診ちゃいけない法律があり
「獣医師」だから人を診ちゃいけない法律がある
どちらも社会的責務の大きい国家資格なのです。

ですが…
法律上、人間は「人」ですが動物は「物」です。

動物への無資格での医療行為は器物損壊罪?
結果的に治れば器物損壊罪も適用されない?

獣医師以外の無資格な一般の方などが
自分が飼っている動物以外の動物
自身のペット以外の動物について行う治療行為は
報酬の有無に関わらず、それは診療行為にあたり
獣医師法あるいは獣医療法違反となります。
しかし、自分が飼っている動物についての治療は
基本的には診療行為にはあたりません。
※内容が動物愛護法に違反する可能性はあります

ペットショップが販売前の個体に注射をしたり
薬を飲ませたりといった医療類似行為を行い
客から対価を得た場合は法令違反になりますが
その個体の健康状態の維持管理を目的として
医療類似行為を行った場合などは不法行為とは
言えない事案や事例があるという事です。
但し、獣医師の処方などのない薬の投与や注射で
その処置を行った事により死亡した場合などは
動物愛護法に抵触する可能性もあります。
※動物に処方される薬の大半が人間用の薬です。
動物試験をクリアした薬が人間に利用されますが
安易に体重比のみで計算したものを与えると
動物種によって薬物に対しての代謝能力が違い
効かないだけでなく、中毒を起こす危険性もあり
素人判断だけでは非常に危険です。

法的にも曖昧なグレーゾーンが多いと感じるのは
動物関連の規制法が確立されていないのが原因か
自身の法解釈が間違っているだけなのかもですが
また機会があれば書いてみたいと思います。

日本国内で実施されている動物関連の
資格試験の名称を一覧にしたものだが
民間資格は聞いたことないようなのが大半
いつの間にこんなに増えたのか知らんが
仕事するうえで必要な資格なのかな?
どんな仕事に必要なのかさえ意味不明だが

【 国家資格 】

■獣医師 (獣医師法)

■動物愛護監視員
(動物の愛護及び管理に関する法律)

■狂犬病予防員 (狂犬病予防法)

■狩猟免許 (鳥獣保護法)

■と畜検査員 (と畜場法)

■種畜検査員
(家畜伝染病予防法/家畜改良増殖法)

■家畜人工授精師
(家畜伝染病予防法/家畜改良増殖法)

■家畜防疫員
(家畜伝染病予防法/家畜改良増殖法)

■食鳥処理衛生管理者
(食鳥処理の事業の規制及び
食鳥検査に関する法律)

【 公的資格 】

■家畜商(都道府県による免許制)

■家畜人工授精師(都道府県による免許制)

【 民間資格 】

■動物看護士 (JCSA)

■動物看護師 (日本小動物獣医師会)

■小動物看護士
(一般社団法人日本ペット技能検定協会)

■小動物介護士
(一般社団法人日本ペット技能検定協会)

■小動物健康管理士
(協同組合 ペットサービスグループ)

■小動物介護士認定
(財団法人 職業技能振興会)

■愛玩動物飼養管理士
(公益社団法人日本愛玩動物協会)

■動物看護技能師認定
(財団法人 職業技能振興会)

■愛玩動物救命士
(愛玩動物福祉協会)

■家庭動物販売士
(一般社団法人全国ペット協会)

■日本ペット技能検定協会認定トリマー
(一般社団法人日本ペット技能検定協会)

■日本ペット技能検定協会認定トレーナー
(一般社団法人日本ペット技能検定協会)

■日本ペット技能検定協会認定ペット販売士
(一般社団法人日本ペット技能検定協会)

■ペット繁殖指導員
(一般社団法人日本ペット技能検定協会)

■ペット飼育アドバイザー
(一般社団法人日本ペット技能検定協会)

■ペットビジネスコンサルタント
(一般社団法人日本ペット技能検定協会)

■ペット美容アドバイザー
(一般社団法人日本ペット技能検定協会)

■ペット繁殖指導員/日本畜犬学会
(一般社団法人日本ペット技能検定協会)

■ペット販売技能師認定
(財団法人 職業技能振興会)

■ペット栄養管理士
(日本ペット栄養学会)

■ペットエステティシャン
(ペットエステ国際協会ジャパン)

■ペット販売士
(株式会社日本畜犬学会)

■ペットグルーミングスペシャリスト
(ヤマザキ動物看護短期大学/同動物専門学校)

■ペットロス・カウンセラー
(日本ペットロス協会)

■トリマーペットスタイリスト試験
(特定非営利活動法人 日本能力開発推進協会)

■JADP認定トリマー
ペットスタイリスト資格(NPO法人JADP)

■トリミング技能師認定
(財団法人 職業技能振興会)

■ブリーディング技能師認定
(財団法人 職業技能振興会)

■ドッグアドバイザー
(NPO法人日本ドッグパーク普及協会)

■ドッグシッター
(一般社団法人日本ペット技能検定協会)

■ドッグ検定
(一般社団法人日本ペット技能検定協会)

■ドッグヘルスアドバイザー
(一般社団法人日本ペット技能検定協会)

■ドッグトレーニングアドバイザー
(一般社団法人日本ペット技能検定協会)

■ドッググルーミングスペシャリスト
(日本動物衛生看護師協会)

■PSGコンパニオンドッグトレーナー
(日本動物衛生看護師協会)

■家庭犬トレーニング技能師認定
(財団法人 職業技能振興会)

■PD公認トリマー
(社団法人 日本警察犬協会)

■日本警察犬協会(NPD)認定犬訓練士
(社団法人 日本警察犬協会)

■日本警察犬協会公認訓練士
(社団法人 日本警察犬協会)

■ジャパンケネルクラブ公認トリマー
(ジャパンケネルクラブ)

■ジャパンケネルクラブ公認ハンドラー
(ジャパンケネルクラブ)

■ジャパンケネルクラブ公認訓練士
(ジャパンケネルクラブ)

■ジャパンケネルクラブ公認訓練教士
(ジャパンケネルクラブ)

■JSV公認訓練士
(社団法人日本シェパード犬登録協会/JSV)

■JDA公認トリマー
(社団法人全日本愛犬技術者指導協会)

■AFC認定家庭犬しつけインストラクター
(アニマルファンスィアーズクラブ)

■日英家庭犬トレーニング協会認定
家庭犬トレーニングインストラクター
(日英家庭犬トレーニング協会)

■キャットグルーマー
(インターナショナルキャットクラブ)

■認定装蹄師
(社団法人日本装蹄師会)

■乗馬ライセンス
(社団法人全国乗馬倶楽部振興協会)

■生物分類技能検定
(財団法人自然環境研究センター)

■初生雛鑑別師
(社団法人畜産技術協会)

■ホリスティックカウンセラー
(一般社団法人日本アニマルウェルネス協会)

Wiki:掲載情報一部引用

Chapter I General Provisions

(Purpose)

Article 1 The purpose of this Act is to engender a spirit for animal welfare among citizens and contribute to the development of a respect for life and sentiments of amity and peace by providing for the prevention of cruelty to animals, the proper handling of animals and other matters concerning animal welfare, as well as to prevent animals from causing an infringement on the life, body or property of humans by providing for matters concerning the management of animals.

(Fundamental Principle)

Article 2 In light of the fact that animals are living beings, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause, and every person shall treat animals properly by taking into account their natural habits and giving consideration to the symbiosis between humans and animals.

(Dissemination and Awareness Raising)

Article 3 The national government and local governments shall, in accordance with the purpose of the previous Article, endeavor to achieve dissemination and awareness raising with regard to the welfare and proper care of animals in coordination with each other through educational activities, publicity activities and other similar activities at such places as schools, communities and homes.

(Be Kind to Animals Week)

Article 4 A Be Kind to Animals Week shall be established in order to enhance the interest and understanding of citizens in general concerning the welfare and proper care of animals, which are living beings.

(2) The Be Kind to Animals Week shall be the period from September 20 through September 26.

(3) During the Be Kind to Animals Week, the national government and local governments shall endeavor to implement events appropriate for the purpose of said campaign.

Chapter II Basic Guidelines, etc.

(Basic Guidelines)

Article 5 The Minister of the Environment shall formulate basic guidelines for comprehensively promoting measures on the welfare and management of animals (hereinafter referred to as the “basic guidelines”).

(2) The basic guidelines shall provide for the following matters:

(i) The basic direction concerning the promotion of measures for the welfare and management of animals

(ii) Basic matters concerning the formulation of the animal welfare and management promotion plan prescribed in paragraph (1) of the following Article

(iii) Any other important matters concerning the promotion of measures for the welfare and management of animals

(3) The Minister of the Environment shall, when he/she intends to formulate or change the basic guidelines, consult with the heads of the relevant administrative organs in advance.

(4) The Minister of the Environment shall, when he/she has formulated or changed the basic guidelines, make them public without delay.

(Animal Welfare and Management Promotion Plan)

Article 6 Each prefecture shall formulate a plan for promoting measures for the welfare and management of animals in the area of said prefecture (hereinafter referred to as the “animal welfare and management promotion plan”) in conformity with the basic guidelines.

(2) The animal welfare and management promotion plan shall provide for the following matters:

(i) The basic policy on measures that should be implemented with regard to the welfare and management of animals

(ii) Matters concerning measures for achieving the proper care and keeping of animals

(iii) Matters concerning dissemination and awareness raising with regard to the welfare and management of animals

(iv) Matters concerning the establishment of a necessary framework for implementing measures for the welfare and management of animals (including securing the cooperation of such entities as the national government, relevant local governments and private bodies)

(v) Any other necessary matters concerning the promotion of measures for the welfare and management of animals

(3) A prefecture shall, when it intends to formulate or change the animal welfare and management promotion plan, hear the opinions of the relevant municipalities in advance.

(4) A prefecture shall, when it has formulated or changed the animal welfare and management promotion plan, make it public without delay.

Chapter III Proper Treatment of Animals

Section 1 General Provisions

(Responsibilities, etc. of Owners and Possessors of Animals)

Article 7 With sufficient awareness of his/her responsibilities as an owner or possessor of an animal, which is a living being, the owner or possessor of an animal shall endeavor to maintain the health and safety of the animal by caring for and keeping said animal in a proper manner according to such aspects as the kind of animal it is and the habit of the animal, and shall also endeavor to ensure that the animal does not cause harm to the life, body or property of humans or cause trouble to humans.

(2) The owner or possessor of an animal shall endeavor to acquire correct information regarding infectious diseases borne by the type of animal he/she owns or possesses and to pay necessary attention to prevent them.

(3) The owner of an animal shall endeavor to take the measures specified by the Minister of the Environment for clarifying that the owned animal is under his/her ownership.

(4) The Minister of the Environment may, after consultation with the heads of the relevant administrative organs, formulate standards to be complied with regarding the care and keeping of animals.

(Responsibilities of Animal Dealers)

Article 8 A person who sells animals in the course of trade shall endeavor to provide to a purchaser of an animal pertaining to the sale any necessary explanations regarding the proper methods for caring for and keeping said animal and shall endeavor to ensure that the purchaser understands those methods.

(Measures by Local Governments)

Article 9 A local government may, pursuant to the provisions of an ordinance, provide guidance to owners and possessors of animals and take any other necessary measures concerning the care and keeping of animals, so as to maintain the health and safety of animals and to ensure that animals do not cause trouble to humans.

Section 2 Regulations on Animal Handling Business

(Registration of Animal Handling Business)

Article 10 A person who intends to engage in a business that handles animals (such animals shall be limited to mammals, birds, and reptiles, and shall exclude those pertaining to livestock farming and those being cared for or kept in order to be provided for use in testing and research, use in manufacturing biological preparations, or for other uses specified by a Cabinet Order; hereinafter the same shall apply in this Section and the following Section) (such business shall include selling [including acting as an intermediary or agent therefor; the same shall apply in the following paragraph], keeping, lending, training, exhibiting [including the provision of opportunities for contact with animals; the same shall apply in the following paragraph] or other handling specified by a Cabinet Order with regard to animals; hereinafter referred to as the “animal handling business”) shall receive registration from the prefectural governor having jurisdiction over the location of the place of business where the person intends to engage in said business (in the case of a designated city set forth in Article 252-19(1) of the Local Autonomy Act [Act No. 67 of 1947] [hereinafter referred to as the “designated city”], the mayor of said designated city; hereinafter the same shall apply in this Section, Article 25(1) and (2) and Section 4).

(2) A person who intends to receive the registration set forth in the preceding paragraph shall submit to the prefectural governor a written application containing the following matters by attaching the documents specified by an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment:

(i) The name and address of the applicant and, in the case of a juridical person, the name of the representative person

(ii) The name and address of the place(s) of business

(iii) The name of the person responsible for animal handling (which means the person prescribed in Article 22(1)) assigned to each place of business

(iv) The category (which means the distinction between selling, keeping, lending, training, exhibiting or other handling specified by a Cabinet Order; hereinafter the same shall apply in this item) of the animal handling business that the applicant intends to engage in and the contents of business and the implementation method for each of such category

(v) The main kinds and the number of animals to be handled

(vi) If a facility for the care and keeping of animals (hereinafter referred to as the “animal facility” in this Section) has been installed, the following matters:

(a) The location of the animal facility

(b) The structure and size of the animal facility

(c) The method for managing the animal facility

(vii) Other matters specified by an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment

(Implementation of Registration)

Article 11 A prefectural governor shall, when an application for registration under paragraph (2) of the preceding Article has been filed, register the matters listed in paragraph (2)(i) to (iii) inclusive and (v) of the preceding Article as well as the date of registration and the registration number in the animal handling business operator registry, except in the case of refusing the registration pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (1) of the following Article.

(2) A prefectural governor shall, when he/she has made the registration under the preceding paragraph, notify the applicant to that effect without delay.

(Refusal of Registration)

Article 12 A prefectural governor shall refuse registration when the person who intends to receive the registration set forth in Article 10(1) falls under any of the following items, when the matters set forth in paragraph (2)(iv) of the same Article pertaining to the application for registration under the same paragraph are found not to conform to the standards specified by an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment as being those necessary for maintaining the health and safety of animals and securing other proper handling of animals, when the matters listed in item (vi)(b) and (c) of the same paragraph pertaining to the application for registration under the same paragraph are found not to conform to the standards on the structure, size and management of animal facilities specified by an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment, or when the written application or the attached documents contain any false statement with regard to an important matter or lack the statement of an important fact:

(i) An adult ward or a person under curatorship, or a bankrupt who has not had his/her rights restored

(ii) A person who has been sentenced to a fine or a severer punishment for the violation of this Act or a disposition based on this Act where two years have yet to elapse since the day on which the execution of the sentence has been completed or the sentence has become no longer applicable

(iii) A person whose registration has been rescinded pursuant to Article 19(1) where two years have yet to elapse since the day of such disposition

(iv) In the case of a person who has received the registration set forth in Article 10(1) (hereinafter referred to as an “animal handling business operator”) and is a juridical person who has had the registration rescinded pursuant to the provisions of Article 19(1), a person who was an officer of said animal handling business operator within 30 days prior to the day of said disposition where two years have yet to elapse since the day of said disposition

(v) A person who has been ordered to suspend his/her business pursuant to the provisions of Article 19(1) where the period of said suspension has yet to elapse

(vi) A juridical person where any of its officers falls under any of the preceding items

(2) A prefectural governor shall, when he/she has refused registration pursuant to the provisions of the preceding paragraph, notify the applicant to that effect by indicating the reason therefor without delay.

(Renewal of Registration)

Article 13 The registration set forth in Article 10(1) shall, unless it is renewed every five years, lose its effect by the expiration of the period thereof.

(2) The provisions of Article 10(2) and the preceding two Articles shall apply mutatis mutandis to the renewal set forth in the preceding paragraph.

(3) In the case where an application for the renewal set forth in paragraph (1) has been filed, if no disposition is given for said application by the date of expiration of the period set forth in the same paragraph (hereinafter referred to as the “effective period of registration” in this Article), the former registration shall remain effective even after the expiration of the effective period of registration, until said disposition is given.

(4) In the case referred to in the previous paragraph, when the registration has been renewed, the effective period of said registration shall be counted from the day following the date of expiration of the effective period of the former registration.

(Notification of Changes)

Article 14 When an animal handling business operator intends to change any of the matters set forth in Article 10(2)(iv) or install an animal facility, he/she shall notify the prefectural governor, in advance, of the matters set forth in item (iv) or (vi) of the same paragraph by attaching the documents specified by an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment.

(2) An animal handling business operator shall, when there has been any change to the matters listed in the items (excluding item (iv)) of Article 10(2) (such change shall exclude a minor change specified by an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment), notify the prefectural governor to that effect by attaching the documents specified by an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment, within 30 days from such day, except in the case referred to in the preceding paragraph.

(3) The provisions of Article 11 and Article 12 shall apply mutatis mutandis to the case where a notification under the preceding two paragraphs has been given.

(Inspection of the Animal Handling Business Operator Registry)

Article 15 A prefectural governor shall provide the animal handling business operator registry for inspection by the general public.

(Notification of Discontinuance of Business, etc.)

Article 16 In the case where an animal handling business operator has fallen under any of the following items, the person prescribed in said item shall notify the prefectural governor to that effect within 30 days from such day:

(i) In the case of death The heir

(ii) In the case of extinction of the juridical person due to a merger The person who had been the officer representing said juridical person

(iii) In the case of dissolution of the juridical person due to a decision of commencement of bankruptcy proceedings The bankruptcy trustee

(iv) In the case of dissolution of the juridical person by a reason other than a decision of commencement of bankruptcy proceedings The liquidator

(v) In the case discontinuance of the animal handling business pertaining to the registration The individual who had been the animal handling business operator or the officer representing the juridical person that had been the animal handling business operator

(2) When an animal handling business operator has fallen under any of the items in the preceding paragraph, the registration of the animal handling business operator shall lose its effect.

(Cancellation of Registration)

Article 17 A prefectural governor shall, when registration has lost its effect pursuant to the provisions of Article 13(1) or paragraph (2) of the preceding Article or when he/she has rescinded the registration pursuant to the provisions of Article 19(1), cancel the registration of said animal handling business operator.

(Posting of a Sign)

Article 18 An animal handling business operator shall, pursuant to the provisions of an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment, post a sign stating the name, registration number and any other matters specified by an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment in a place that is easily visible to the general public, in each place of business.

(Rescission, etc. of Registration)

Article 19 A prefectural governor may, when an animal handling business operator falls under any of the following items, rescind the registration or order the suspension of all or part of the business by specifying a period no longer than six months:

(i) When the person has received registration as an animal handling business operator by dishonest means

(ii) When the contents of the business or implementation method carried out by the person no longer conforms to the standards specified by an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment as being those necessary for maintaining the health and safety of animals and securing any other proper handling of animals as prescribed in Article 12(1)

(iii) When, in the case where the person has installed an animal facility, the structure, size and management method for the animal facility of said person no longer conforms to the standards on the structure, size and management of animal facilities prescribed in Article 12(1)

(iv) When the person has fallen under any of the provisions of Article 12(1)(i), (iv) or (vi)

(v) When the person has violated this Act, an order based on this Act or a disposition based on this Act

(2) The provisions of Article 12(2) apply mutatis mutandis to the case where a disposition under the preceding paragraph has been given.

(Delegation to Ordinances of the Ministry of the Environment)

Article 20 In addition to what is provided for in Article 10 to the preceding Article, any necessary matters concerning the registration of animal handling business operators shall be specified by Ordinances of the Ministry of the Environment.

(Compliance with Standards)

Article 21 An animal handling business operator shall comply with the standards specified by an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment concerning such matters as the method for the management of the animals handled, in order to maintain the health and safety of the animals and to prevent the occurrence of impediments in preserving the living environment.

(2) A prefecture or a designated city may, when it is found necessary judging from the natural and social conditions, formulate standards to be complied with by animal handling business operators in place of the standards set forth in the preceding paragraph, by an ordinance, in order to maintain the health and safety of the animals and to prevent the occurrence of impediments in preserving the living environment.

(Person Responsible for Animal Handling)

Article 22 An animal handling business operator shall, pursuant to the provisions of an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment, appoint a person responsible for animal handling for each place of business in order to properly implement the work pertaining to said place of business.

(2) A person responsible for animal handling shall be a person other than one who falls under the provisions of Article 12(1)(i) to (v) inclusive.

(3) An animal handling business operator shall, pursuant to the provisions of an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment, have persons responsible for animal handling receive training for persons responsible for animal handling (which means training on the knowledge and ability necessary for the work of persons responsible for animal handling that is provided by the prefectural governor).

(Recommendations and Orders)

Article 23 A prefectural governor may, when he/she finds that an animal handling business operator fails to comply with the standards set forth in Article 21(1) or (2), recommend said person to improve such matters as the method for the management of the animals handled, by specifying a time limit.

(2) A prefectural governor may, when he/she finds that an animal handling business operator fails to comply with the provisions of paragraph (3) of the preceding Article, recommend said person to take the necessary measures, by specifying a time limit.

(3) A prefectural governor may, when a person who has received a recommendation under the preceding two paragraphs fails to follow the recommendation, order said person to take measures pertaining to said recommendation, by specifying a time limit.

(Reports and Inspections)

Article 24 A prefectural governor may, within the limit necessary for implementing the provisions of Articles 10 to 19 inclusive and the preceding three Articles, request an animal handling business operator to make reports on the status of animal facilities, the method for the management of the animals handled and other necessary matters or have prefectural officials enter the place of business of said animal handling business operator or other relevant places and inspect the animal facilities or other property.

(2) An official who enters and inspects pursuant to the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall carry a certificate for identification and produce it to the persons concerned.

(3) The authority of entry and inspection under paragraph 1 shall not be construed as that approved for the purpose of criminal investigation.

Section 3 Measures Pertaining to Preservation of the Living Environment

Article 25 A prefectural governor may, when he/she finds that a situation categorized by an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment is one where the surrounding living environment has been damaged because of the care and keeping of a large number of animals, recommend the person causing said situation to take the necessary measures for removing such situation, by specifying a time limit.

(2) In the case where a person who has received a recommendation under the preceding paragraph fails to take the measures pertaining to the recommendation, the prefectural governor may, if he/she finds it particularly necessary, order said person to take the measures pertaining to the recommendation, by specifying a time limit.

(3) A prefectural governor may request the necessary cooperation from the mayors of municipalities (including special wards) (such mayors shall exclude the mayors of designated cities) with regard to the recommendation or order under the preceding two paragraphs.

Section 4 Measures to Prevent Animals from Causing Infringement on the Life, etc. of Humans

(Permission for the Care or Keeping of Specified Animals)

Article 26 A person who intends to care for or keep an animal categorized by a Cabinet Order as one that carries a risk of causing harm to the life, body or property of humans (hereinafter referred to as a “specified animal”) shall, pursuant to the provisions of an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment, receive the permission of the prefectural governor having jurisdiction over the location of the facility for the care and keeping of the specified animal (hereinafter referred to as the “specified animal facility” in this Section) for each kind of specified animal; provided, however, that this shall not apply to the case where a veterinarian cares for or keeps a specified animal in a medical facility (which means a medical facility prescribed in Article 2(2) of the Veterinary Practice Act [Act No. 46 of 1992]) for the purpose of medical care.

(2) A person who intends to receive the permission set forth in the preceding paragraph shall, pursuant to the provisions of an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment, submit to the prefectural governor a written application containing the following matters and the documents specified by an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment attached to th

(i) The name and address of the applicant and, in the case of a juridical person, the name of the representative person

(ii) The kind and the number of the specified animals

(iii) The purpose of the care or keeping

(iv) The location of the specified animal facility

(v) The structure and size of the specified animal facility

(vi) The method for caring for or keeping the specified animals

(vii) Other matters specified by an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment

(Criteria for Permission)

Article 27 A prefectural governor shall not grant the permission set forth in paragraph (1) of the preceding Article unless he/she finds that the application for permission set forth in the same paragraph conforms to the following items:

(i) The matters listed in paragraph (2)(v) and (vi) of the preceding Article pertaining to said application conform to the standards concerning the structure and size of the specified animal facilities and to the method for caring for and keeping the specified animals as specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment according to the characteristics of the specified animals.

(ii) The applicant does not fall under any of the following categories:

(a) A person who has been sentenced to a fine or a severer punishment for violation of this Act or a disposition based on this Act where two years have yet to elapse since the day on which execution of the sentence has been completed or the sentence has become no longer applicable

(b) A person whose permission has been rescinded pursuant to Article 29(1) where two years have yet to elapse since the day of such disposition

(c) A juridical person where any of its officers fall under either (a) or (b)

(2) In the case of granting the permission set forth in paragraph (1) of the preceding Article, the prefectural governor may, when he/she finds it necessary for preventing specified animals from causing an infringement on the life, body or property of humans, attach conditions to said permission within the limit of such necessity.

(Permission, etc. for Changes)

Article 28 When a person who has received a permission set forth in Article 26(1) (including the permission under this paragraph) (such person shall be referred to a “specified animal caretaker”) intends to change any of the matters set forth in paragraph (2)(ii) or (iv) to (vi) inclusive of the same Article, he/she shall receive the permission of the prefectural governor pursuant to the provisions of an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment; provided, however, that this shall not apply when said change is a minor change specified by an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment.

(2) The provisions of the preceding Article shall apply mutatis mutandis to the permission set forth in the preceding paragraph.

(3) A specified animal caretaker shall, when there has been a minor change specified by an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment as set forth in the proviso to paragraph (1) or when there has been any change to the matters set forth in Article 26(2)(i) or (iii) or other matters specified by an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment, notify the prefectural governor to that effect within 30 days from such day.

(Rescission of Permission)

Article 29 A prefectural governor may, when a specified animal caretaker falls under any of the following items, rescind the permission:

(i) When the person has received permission to be a specified animal caretaker by dishonest means

(ii) When the structure or size of the specified animal facility or the method for caring or keeping the specified animals of said person no longer conforms to the standards prescribed in Article 27(1)(i)

(iii) When the person has fallen under Article 27(1)(ii)(c)

(iv) When the person has violated this Act, an order based on this Act or a disposition based on this Act

(Ordinances of the Ministry of the Environment)

Article 30 In addition to what is provided for in Article 26 to the preceding Article, any necessary matters concerning permission for the care and keeping of specified animals shall be specified by Ordinances of the Ministry of the Environment.

(Method for Caring For or Keeping Animals)

Article 31 When a specified animal caretaker engages in caring or keeping pertaining to the permission, he/she shall periodically inspect the specified animal facility pertaining to said specified animal, clarify that he/she has received permission with regard to said specified animal, and conform to any other methods specified by an Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment.

(Order for Specified animal caretaker to Take Measures)

Article 32 In the case where a specified animal caretaker has violated the provisions of the preceding Article or has violated the conditions attached pursuant to the provisions of Article 27(2) (including the case where it is applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 28(2)), the prefectural governor may, if he/she finds it necessary for preventing specified animals from causing an infringement on the life, body or property of humans, order said person to improve the method for caring for or keeping said specified animals or take other necessary measures.

(Reports and Inspections)

Article 33 A prefectural governor may, within the limit necessary for implementing the provisions of Articles 26 to 29 inclusive and the preceding two Articles, request a specified animal caretaker to make reports on the status of specified animal facilities, the method for the management of the specified animals handled and other necessary matters or have prefectural officials enter the places where the specified animal facilities of said specified animal caretaker are established or other relevant places and inspect the specified animal facilities or other properties.

(2) The provisions of Article 24(2) and (3) shall apply mutatis mutandis to entry and inspection under the preceding paragraph.

Section 5 Officials in Charge of Animal Welfare

Article 34 A local government may, pursuant to the provisions of an ordinance, establish officials with such a title as animal welfare and management official (referred to as “officials in charge of animal welfare” in the following paragraph) to perform the entry and inspection prescribed in Article 24(1) or paragraph (1) of the preceding Article and other work related to the welfare and management of animals.

(2) An official in charge of animal welfare shall be an official of said local government who has expert knowledge on the proper care and keeping of animals, such as a veterinarian.

Chapter IV Measures Taken by Prefectures, etc.

(Taking Custody of Dogs and Cats)

Article 35 Prefectures, etc. (which means prefectures, designated cities, core cities set forth in Article 252-22(1) of the Local Autonomy Act [hereinafter referred to as “core cities”] and other cities specified by a Cabinet Order [including special wards; the same shall apply hereinafter]) shall take custody of a dog or cat when so requested by its owner. In this case, the prefectural governor, etc. (which means the heads of the prefecture, etc.; the same shall apply hereinafter) may designate the place where the dog or cat is to be taken into custody.

(2) The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall apply mutatis mutandis to the case where a prefecture, etc. is requested to take custody of a dog or cat of which the owner is unknown by its finder or any other person.

(3) A prefectural governor may seek the necessary cooperation from the mayor of a municipality (including a special ward) (such mayor shall exclude the mayor of a designated city, core city or a city specified by a Cabinet Order set forth in paragraph (1)) concerning custody of a dog or cat under paragraph (1) (including the case where it is applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to the preceding paragraph; the same shall apply in paragraphs (5) and (6)).

(4) A prefectural governor, etc. may commission custody of dogs and cats to an organization established for the purpose of animal welfare.

(5) The Minister of the Environment may, after consultation with the heads of the relevant administrative organs, prescribe necessary matters with regard to the measures to be taken in the case where custody has been requested pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (1).

(6) The national government may, within the scope of the budget, grant a subsidy to a prefecture, etc. for a part of the costs related to custody set forth in paragraph (1), pursuant to the provisions of a Cabinet Order.

(Measures for Notification by Finders of Injured Animals, etc.)

Article 36 A person who has found an animal such as a dog or a cat that has a disease or is injured or the carcass of an animal such as a dog or a cat on a road, in a park, in a plaza, or in any other public place shall endeavor to notify promptly the owner when the owner is known or the prefectural governor, etc. when the owner is unknown.

(2) A prefecture, etc. shall, when a notification under the preceding paragraph has been given, take away said animal or animal carcass.

(3) The provisions of paragraph (5) of the preceding Article shall apply mutatis mutandis to the case of taking away an animal pursuant to the provisions of the preceding paragraph.

(Restriction on the Breeding of Dogs and Cats)

Article 37 The owner of a dog or a cat shall, when he/she finds that there is a risk that the animal would breed freely and that it would be difficult to give the offspring an opportunity to receive proper care, endeavor to have surgery carried out to disable breeding or take any other measures in order to prevent breeding.

(2) A prefecture, etc. shall, upon such cases as when custody of a dog or a cat is taken under Article 35(1), endeavor to provide the necessary guidance and advice so that the measures prescribed in the preceding paragraph are taken appropriately.

(Animal Welfare Promoters)

Article 38 Prefectural governors, etc. may appoint animal welfare promoters from among persons who have enthusiasm and knowledge regarding the promotion of the welfare of such animals as dogs and cats in the region.

(2) An animal welfare promoter shall perform the following activities:

(i) Deepen the understanding of residents regarding the importance of the welfare and proper care of such animals as dogs and cats

(ii) Give residents, upon request, the necessary advice on surgery for disabling breeding and any other measures for preventing the free breeding of such animals as dogs and cats

(iii) Provide such persons as the owners of such animals as dogs and cats, upon request, adoption services or any other necessary assistance for giving these animals an opportunity to receive proper care

(iv) Provide cooperation necessary for the measures conducted by the national government or prefectures, etc. to promote the welfare and proper care of such animals as dogs and cats

(Council)

Article 39 Prefectures, etc., non-profit corporations established for the purpose of animal welfare, veterinarian organizations and any other organizations working to disseminate and raise awareness regarding the welfare and proper care of animals may form a council for promoting the appointment of animal welfare promoters in the prefecture, etc. and conducting the necessary deliberations regarding such matters as support for the activities of animal welfare promoters.

Chapter V Miscellaneous Provisions

(Method to Be Applied in the Case of Destroying Animals)

Article 40 In the case where an animal must be destroyed, a method that minimizes as much as possible the pain and distress to the animal shall be used.

(2) The Minister of the Environment may, after consultation with the heads of the relevant administrative organs, provide necessary matters with regard to the method set forth in the preceding paragraph.

(Method to Be Applied, Subsequent Measures, etc. in the Case of Providing Animals for Scientific Use)

Article 41 When providing animals for use in education, testing and research or the manufacture of biological preparations, or for any other scientific use, consideration shall be given to the appropriate use of such animals by such means as using alternative methods to that of the use of animals as much as possible and reducing the number of animals provided for such use as much as possible, within the extent that the purpose of the scientific use can be attained.

(2) In the case where an animal is provided for a scientific use, a method that minimizes the pain and distress to the animal as much as possible shall be used, within the limit necessary for such use.

(3) In the case where an animal has fallen into a state from which recovery is unlikely after being provided for a scientific use, the person who provided the animal for such scientific use shall immediately dispose of said animal by a method that minimizes pain and distress as much as possible.

(4) The Minister of the Environment may, after consultation with the heads of the relevant administrative organs, prescribe the standards to be complied with regarding the method set forth in paragraph (2) and the measures set forth in the preceding paragraph.

(Transitional Measures)

Article 42 In the case of establishing, amending, or abolishing an order based on the provisions of this Act, required transitional measures (including transitional measures relating to penal provisions) may be specified by said order, within the extent that is judged to be reasonably necessary in line with the establishment, amendment, or abolition of the order.

(Hearing of the Opinion of the Central Environment Council)

Article 43 The Minister of the Environment shall, when he/she intends to formulate the basic guidelines, establish the standards set forth in Article 7(4), Article 12(1), Article 21(1), Article 27(1)(i) or Article 41(4), specify the situation set forth in Article 25(1), or prescribe the matters set forth in Article 35(5) (including the case where it is applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 36(3)) or Article 40(2), hear the opinion of the Central Environment Council. The same shall apply when he/she intends to change or abolish the basic guidelines, standards, situation, or matters.

Chapter VI Penal Provisions

Article 44 A person who has destroyed or injured, without reason, a protected animal shall be punished by imprisonment with work for not more than one year or a fine of not more than one million yen.

(2) A person who has committed on a protected animal such cruelty as causing debilitation by discontinuing feeding and/or watering without reason shall be punished by a fine of not more than five hundred thousand yen.

(3) A person who has abandoned a protected animal shall be punished by a fine of not more than five hundred thousand yen.

(4) The term “protected animal” as used in the preceding three paragraphs shall be the animals listed in the following items:

(i) Cattle, horses, pigs, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, domestic rabbits, chickens, domestic pigeons, and domestic ducks

(ii) Animals in the possession of persons where such animals are categorized as mammals, birds or reptiles, other than those listed in the preceding item

Article 45 A person who falls under any of the following items shall be punished by imprisonment with work for not more than six months or a fine of not more than five hundred thousand yen:

(i) A person who has cared for or kept a specified animal without permission in violation of the provisions of Article 26(1)

(ii) A person who has received the permission set forth in Article 26(1) by dishonest means

(iii) A person who has changed any of the matters set forth in Article 26(2) (ii) or (iv) to (vi) inclusive in violation of the provisions of Article 28(1)

Article 46 A person who falls under any of the following items shall be punished by a fine of not more than three hundred thousand yen:

(i) A person who has engaged in the animal handling business without receiving registration in violation of the provisions of Article 10(1)

(ii) A person who has received the registration set forth in Article 10(1) (including the renewal of registration set forth in Article 13(1)) by dishonest means

(iii) A person who has violated an order for the suspension of business under Article 19(1)

(iv) A person who has violated an order under Article 23(3) or Article 32

Article 47 A person who falls under any of the following items shall be punished by a fine of not more than two hundred thousand yen:

(i) A person who has failed to give a notification under Article 14(1) or (2) or Article 28(3) or has given a false notification

(ii) A person who has failed to make a report under Article 24(1) or Article 33(1) or has made a false report, or who has refused, obstructed, or evaded an inspection under these provisions

(iii) A person who has violated an order under Article 25(2)

Article 48 When the representative person of a juridical person, or an agent, employee or any other worker of a juridical person or individual has committed an act in violation of the provisions from Article 44 to the preceding Article with regard to the business of said juridical person or individual, not only the offender shall be punished but also said juridical person or individual shall be punished by a fine prescribed in the respective Articles.

Article 49 A person who has failed to give a notification under Article 16(1) or has given a false notification shall be punished by a non-penal fine of not more than two hundred thousand yen.

Article 50 A person who fails to post a sign under Article 18 shall be punished by a non-penal fine of not more than one hundred thousand yen.

Act No. 105 of October 1, 1973

“動物の愛護及び管理に関する法律”を翻訳

 

 

映像制作などのお話がしばらく続いたので
実際の映画の中で扱われている動物について
少し書いてみたいと思います。

その第一弾としては私的にも外せないのが
誰もが知る名作ファンタジー映画
ハリー・ポッターシリーズに登場していた
ヘドウィグ(Hedwig)役のシロフクロウ

 

 

原作ではメスの設定になっていましたが
実際の撮影に使用され
ヘドウィグ役を演じていたのはオス達でした

ハリー・ポッターと秘密の部屋
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
ハリー・ポッターと賢者の石
Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone

メインのカットをGizmo(ギズモ)が演じ
Sprout(スプラウト)とOok(オーク)の2羽が
フライトシーンなどのサブを担当する事で
1羽当たりの負担やストレスを軽減させて
ヘドウィグのシーンは撮影されていたのです

3羽のシロフクロウが見事に1羽を演じ
リアルな撮影部分とCGによるカット割を使い
見事なヘドウィグの動きや表情を作り出し
あの数々の名場面が生まれたというのは
言うまでもありません。

ハリー・ポッターシリーズに登場していた
実在する動物達の調教や訓練は全て
世界的にも有名なGary Gero氏率いる
Birds & Animals Unlimitedによるものです。
http://www.birdsandanimals.com

 

■和名:シロフクロウ(白梟)
■学名:Bubo scandiacus
■英名:Snowy Owl
■分布:北極圏のツンドラ地帯

 

 

 

インドネシアのジャングルで偶然撮影された
マカクザル「ナルト」の自撮り写真をめぐり
自撮り写真を撮影したカメラの所有者である
自然写真家とアメリカの動物愛護団体
動物の倫理的扱いを求める人々の会(PETA)が
この自撮り写真の著作権を巡って争っていた
裁判はサンフランシスコの連邦裁判所による
「動物に著作権保護は適用とされない。
このサルに写真の著作権は認められない」と
判断、PETA側が上訴を断念したことで
2年にも及ぶ訴訟に決着がついた形となった。

 

※下の画像が「ナルト」の自撮り写真である。

WILDLIFE PERSONALITIES by David J Slater

 

この訴訟の発端は2011年
インドネシアのスラウェシでイギリス人の
自然写真家デイビッド・スレイター氏が
絶滅危惧種のクロザルを撮影していた際
放置されていたカメラに動物達が興味を持ち
このカメラを使ってサル達が遊び始めた事が
サルの自撮り写真という偶然を生んだ。

この奇跡的な一枚の写真が口コミで広まり
インターネットなどで拡散された事で
この写真の著作権を巡って論争が始まった。

著作権は自分にあると主張するスレイター氏
写真の使用料を払わないのは違法であり
経済的損失を被ってきたと主張し
ライセンスフリーの画像などを提供する
ウィキメディア・コモンズに対し
「ナルト」の写真を削除するように要求

しかし、削除要求されたウィキメディア側は
人間ではなく動物によって撮影された写真は
パブリックドメインに属すると主張し
スレイター氏の要求を拒否したのである。

この両者の争いに加え、2015年
動物の倫理的扱いを求める人々の会(PETA)が
クロザルの「ナルト」に代わり
この写真の著作権所有を求める訴訟を起こし

著作権法は作品を作った者に対して著作権を
付与するものであり
そこに生物の種類の制限は無いはず。
著作権法はカメラを所有する人間ではなく
写真を撮った存在に権利を与えていると主張

これが「サルの自撮り」を巡って巻起こった
動物に財産権が認められるのかが争われた
前代未聞と言われた裁判の全容です。

個人的な意見としては、意外性のない結末
「やっぱりね…。」という結果でしたが
動物を「物」として扱うのか
動物にも権利を与えるのかという論争の中
世界中の注目を集め続けていたこの裁判は
野生動物たちの存在をアピールするうえでも
意味のあるものだったのではと思います。

又、原告が動物という珍しい裁判は1995年に
奄美のクロウサギやオオトラツグミ
アマミヤマシギ、ルリカケスを原告とした
「アマミノクロウサギ訴訟」というものが
土地開発で生存を脅かされた動物達に代わり
住民たちの方々が動物の生存権を主張して
開発の差止めを求める裁判というものが
日本でも過去に行われた事がありましたが

日本の場合は動物に訴訟を訴える資格はない
法律は人を対象としたものであり
法律で認められる権利が帰属するのは人だけ
という判断から訴えを却下したそうですが

住民たちは、天然記念物や絶滅危惧種などに
指定されている奄美の固有種たちを守れない
不甲斐なさから予想された結果と解りつつも
現行法では自然環境を保護することの困難さ
その限界を世間の人たちに知ってもらおうと
訴訟を提起されたのだそうです。

 

 

動物に対して虐待行為と思われる行為の強要
動物に対する配慮など微塵も感じない現場

動物愛護問題が問題視されている昨今でさえ
日本の撮影現場では普通に行われています。

勿論、撮影前の段階で内容的に拒否するもの
現場での無茶な要求や要望などに対し
その場で問題定義したり拒否する現場など
様々なケースやパターンが存在しますが
基本的には小道具扱いされている場合が多く
動物に対しても丁寧に扱って頂ける現場は
ほんの一握りと言っても過言ではありません

日本には動物取扱業という動物を扱う側への
規制や法律などは少なからずありますが
撮影に動物を使用する際のガイドラインが
テレビや映画の制作側には設けられておらず
最終的には動物を貸し出す側の判断のみ
この点に関しても曖昧な法解釈が先行し
動物愛護法という効力は現場に生かされず

制作側も低予算の中で最大限の努力はするが
低予算ゆえの扱いが動物へのシワ寄せを生み
低予算でも請け負わねば生計が成り立たない
動物業者との構図や専門業者すら使えずに
一般の飼育者から借りて撮影する制作側など
動物達の扱い方にまで配慮できる形態には
なっていないというのが実情だと思います。

映像制作の現場での動物の扱い方に対し
何の規制や順守義務も持たない日本の現場で
基準とされる海外のようなガイドラインが
導入されるのはいつの日なのだろうか?

 

 

「この映画を製作するにあたって
いかなる動物虐待も行っていない」

「この映画の制作にあたり
危害を受けた動物はいません」

アメリカの動物映画でエンドロールに流れ
表示されているこの一文・コメント内容は
公式に認められた動物福祉団体が策定した
動物の為のガイドラインを制作会社が採用し
動物の扱い方に対してこの団体からの助言や
撮影時の査察を受けている事を示している。

日本の作品に見られる“一応入れとくか”
程度の軽い認識のものではない。

このガイドラインは動物たちの安全は勿論
動物たちを使おうと考えるメディアの方々の
立場や権利をも守る為のガイドラインです。

私たちは“動物プロダクション”として
動物を扱うプロとして世界基準を推奨し
このガイドラインの普及に取り組んでいます

 

 

動物プロダクションと言えば
実際にリアルな生きもの達を使った
リアルな撮影がメインだと思われがちですが
実写以外にも映画やCM、PVの中で使われる
CGなどの素材作りや動物の鳴き声などの
音源や音響素材などを制作する為のご依頼や
本物の昆虫や動物などの生きもの達を使い
よりリアルな生きもの達の動きや挙動
表情やしぐさなどを作る為の素材作り
トレースの為のご依頼などにも対応します。

リアルな動物達の動きに驚かされるほどのCG

ライフ・オブ・パイ/トラと漂流した227日や

実写版ジャングル・ブックなどで見られる
実写と見間違うほどの映像美と世界観

国内でこれほどの作品が作られる可能性は
映像技術などの問題だけではないので
現実的には極めて低いと思われますが

いずれ動物愛護などの観点から考えても
動物を酷使するような撮影内容ではなく
動物はブルーバックのスタジオで撮影を行う
無理な動きや動物に負担のかかるシーンは
CGで対応するといった事が当たり前になる
そんな時代もありなんじゃないのかな?

と、思ってみたり 願ってみたり
そんな今日この頃。

モズという鳥は生け垣などの尖った小枝や
枝木の隙間、有刺鉄線のトゲなどを利用し
バッタやカエルなどの獲物達を串ざしにする
変わった習性がある事で知られています。

 

 

日本ではこれを鵙の早贄や百舌の早贄と書き
「モズのはやにえ」と呼んでいる。
生贄のように吊るされる亡骸の不気味さゆえ
江戸時代には「モズが鳴く夜は死人が出る」
と信じられ、凶鳥として扱われてきました。
又、ドイツではモズの事を「絞め殺す天使」
イギリスでは「屠殺人の鳥」などと呼ばれ
この習性のお陰でどの国でも散々なイメージ

そんな凶鳥イメージのモズですが、昔の人は
本能的に雪に隠れない高さに早贄があるとし
吊るされる位置が低ければその年の積雪量が
少ないと、カマキリの産みつける卵塊同様に
その年の積雪量を占っていたというのだから
モズを信用してるんだか信用してないんだか
なんとも微妙なお話なのである。

捕獲した獲物を尖った枝などに突き刺す…。
なんとも狂気じみた行為にも思えるが

この行動には諸説があり、何の為に行うのか
実際のところは解明されていないようですが
自分の縄張りを他の鳥に誇示する為の行為や
冬を越すための食糧管理の為の行為だとか
いずれも憶測の域を脱しないのが残念だが
捕食された形跡も無く吊るされた亡骸も多く
餌付けされた個体でもはやにえを行う事から
本能的な要素が強いと考えられている。

又、肉食傾向が強い鳥の為、猛禽類のように
上顎の形状は下方に曲がり嘴縁突起まである
のだが、肉食のタカやフクロウ達のように
獲物を掴むだけの脚や爪は発達していない為
脚で抑えた状態で獲物を引き裂く事が出来ず
モズなりに考えた生活の知恵なのであれば
動物って凄いよね!!

で片付く話だと自分は思うのだが(笑

 

 

■和名:モズ (百舌/百舌鳥/鵙)
■学名:Lanius bucephalus
■英名:Bull-headed shrike
■分布:日本 中国東部から南部
朝鮮半島 ロシア南東部
■環境:日本では全国の平地から森林
農耕地、河畔林などに生息して繁殖
■体長:全長約20cm程度
■食性:動物食(昆虫 甲殻類 爬虫類 哺乳類)
※あんまり良いイメージの少ない鳥ですが
なんと大阪府の府の鳥として認定されており
堺市の市の鳥さんにも指定されている。

 


尚、画像にある「はやにえ」らしき亡骸達は
大阪府の北部で昨日撮影されたものですが
串刺しにされた状態の亡骸数が非常に多く
低位置である事からモズの仕業ではなく
まだ命を理解していない小さな子供の仕業か
理解した上で行われている鬼畜行為なのか…

はっきりとした事は言い切れませんが
世知辛い世の中なんだとは思いたくないので
ま、モズの早贄であって欲しいと願いつつ
そのへんの事に関してはご了承下さいまし。

 

Just this side of heaven is a place called Rainbow Bridge.
When an animal dies that has been especially close to someone here, that pet goes to Rainbow Bridge.

There are meadows and hills for all of our special friends so they can run and play together.

There is plenty of food, water and sunshine, and our friends are warm and comfortable.

All the animals who had been ill and old are restored to health and vigor. Those who were hurt or maimed are made whole and strong again, just as we remember them in our dreams of days and times gone by.

The animals are happy and content, except for one small thing; they each miss someone very special to them, who had to be left behind.

They all run and play together, but the day comes when one suddenly stops and looks into the distance.

His bright eyes are intent. His eager body quivers. Suddenly he begins to run from the group, flying over the green grass, his legs carrying him faster and faster.

You have been spotted, and when you and your special friend finally meet, you cling together in joyous reunion, never to be parted again.

The happy kisses rain upon your face; your hands again caress the beloved head, and you look once more into the trusting eyes of your pet, so long gone from your life but never absent from your heart.

Then you cross Rainbow Bridge together.

See you over the Rainbow Bridge someday.

My beloved KEITH.